Nchifukwa chiyani manyowa a nkhuku amayenera kuwola bwino asanagwiritse ntchito?

Choyamba, manyowa a nkhuku yaiwisi sangafanane ndi fetereza. Feteleza Wachilengedwe amatanthauza udzu, keke, manyowa a ziweto, zotsalira za bowa ndi zina zopangira kudzera pakuwonongeka, nayonso mphamvu ndi kukonza amapangidwa feteleza. Manyowa azinyama ndi chimodzi mwazinthu zopangira feteleza.

Kaya manyowa a nkhuku onyowa kapena owuma sanatenthedwe, zimabweretsa kuwonongeka kwa masamba obiriwira, minda ya zipatso ndi mbewu zina zopezera ndalama, zomwe zimawonongetsa chuma cha alimi. Tiyeni tiyambe kuyang'ana kuopsa kwa manyowa a nkhuku yaiwisi, ndipo nchifukwa ninji anthu amaganiza kuti manyowa a nkhuku yaiwisi ndi othandiza kwambiri kuposa ndowe zina? Nanga mungagwiritse ntchito bwanji manyowa a nkhuku molondola komanso moyenera?

Masoka asanu ndi atatu omwe amayamba mosavuta chifukwa chogwiritsa ntchito manyowa a nkhuku m'malo obiriwira ndi minda ya zipatso:

1. Wotcha mizu, uwotche mbande ndikupha mbewu

Mutagwiritsa ntchito manyowa a nkhuku yopanda chofufumitsa, dzanja lanu likalowetsedwa m'nthaka, kutentha kwa nthaka kumakhala kwakukulu kwambiri. Milandu yayikulu, kumwalira kwa nthiti kapena denga lonse kumachedwetsa ulimi ndikupangitsa kuti ntchito isawonongeke komanso kubzala mbewu.

Makamaka, kugwiritsa ntchito manyowa a nkhuku m'nyengo yozizira ndi masika kumatha kukhala pachiwopsezo chachikulu, chifukwa panthawiyi, kutentha mkati mwa wowonjezera kutentha ndikotentha, ndipo kuthira manyowa a nkhuku kumatulutsa kutentha kwakukulu, komwe kumayambitsa moto . Manyowa a nkhuku adagwiritsidwa ntchito m'munda wa zipatso m'nyengo yozizira ndi masika, ndi nthawi yoti muzitha kugona. Muzuwo ukawotchedwa, umakhudza kuchuluka kwa michere ndi maluwa ndi zipatso mu chaka chikubwerachi.

2. kuthira mchere m'nthaka, kumachepetsa zipatso

Kugwiritsa ntchito manyowa a nkhuku mosalekeza kwasiya mchere wambiri wa sodium m'nthaka, wokhala ndi makilogalamu 30 mpaka 40 a mchere pa ma 6 mita lalikulu la manyowa a nkhuku, ndipo makilogalamu 10 amchere pa ekala yathandiza kuti nthaka isamayende bwino . Manyowa olimba a phosphate, fetereza wa potashi, calcium, magnesium, zinc, chitsulo, boron, manganese ndi zinthu zina zofunika, zomwe zimapangitsa kukula kwachilendo, masamba ochepa ndi zipatso, zomwe zimalepheretsa kusintha kwa zokolola ndi mtundu.

Zotsatira zake, kuchuluka kwa magwiritsidwe a feteleza kumatsika chaka ndi chaka ndipo mtengo wolowetsa udakwera ndi 50-100%

3. Limbikitsani nthaka ndikupangitsa matenda osiyanasiyana a rhizosphere ndi matenda amtundu

Chifukwa pH ya manyowa a nkhuku ndi pafupifupi 4, ndi acidic kwambiri ndipo imathandizira nthaka, kupangitsa kusokonezeka kwamankhwala ndi kuwonongeka kwakukulu pamizu ndi mizu, ndikupereka ma virus ambiri onyamula nkhuku, matenda obwera chifukwa cha nthaka -kunyamula mabakiteriya, mavairasi ndipo kumapereka mwayi wolowera ndi matenda, chinyezi ndi kutentha zikafika pamatendawo.

Kugwiritsa ntchito manyowa osakwanira a nkhuku, osavuta kuyambitsa chomera, chikasu chouma, kuperewera kumasiya kukula, kulibe maluwa ndi zipatso, ngakhale kufa; Matenda a virus, mliri, mapesi zowola, mizu zowola ndi bakiteriya ndizomwe zimadziwika kwambiri ndi manyowa a nkhuku.

4. Mizu mfundo nematode infestation

Manyowa a nkhuku ndi malo osungira ndi malo oswana a ma nematode. Chiwerengero cha mazira a nematode ndi 100 pa 1000 magalamu. Mazira a manyowa a nkhuku ndi osavuta kuwaswa ndi kuchulukana ndi makumi masauzande usiku umodzi.

news748+ (1)

Ma Nematode amakhudzidwa kwambiri ndi mankhwala, ndipo amasunthira msanga masentimita 50 mpaka 1.5 mita, kuwapangitsa kukhala kovuta kuchiza. Muzu wa mfundo nematode ndi imodzi mwangozi zowopsa kwambiri makamaka m'malo okhalamo akale azaka zopitilira zitatu.

5. Bweretsani maantibayotiki, omwe akukhudza chitetezo cha zinthu zaulimi

Zakudya za nkhuku zimakhala ndi mahomoni ambiri, komanso zimawonjezera maantibayotiki popewa matenda, izi zimabweretsedwa m'nthaka kudzera mu manyowa a nkhuku, zomwe zimakhudza chitetezo cha zinthu zaulimi

news748+ (2)

6.Pangani mpweya woyipa, womwe umakhudza kukula kwa mbewu, kupha mbande

Manyowa a nkhuku pakuwonongeka kuti atulutse methane, gasi wa ammonia ndi mpweya wina wowopsa, kuti nthaka ndi mbewu zibweretse kuwonongeka kwa asidi ndi kuwonongeka kwa mizu, choopsa kwambiri ndikupanga mpweya wa ethylene wopinga mizu, womwe ndi chifukwa chachikulu mizu yoyaka.

7. Kugwiritsa ntchito ndowe za nkhuku mosalekeza, zomwe zimabweretsa kusowa kwa mpweya m'mizu

Kugwiritsa ntchito manyowa a nkhuku mosalekeza kumabweretsa kusowa kwa mpweya mu mizu ndi kukula kovuta. Manyowa a nkhuku akaikidwa m'nthaka, amatenga mpweya m'nthaka panthawi yowonongeka, ndikupangitsa kuti dothi likhale la hypoxia kwakanthawi, komwe kumalepheretsa kukula kwa mbewu.

8. Zitsulo zolemera zimapitilira muyeso

Manyowa a nkhuku amakhala ndi zinthu zolemera zambiri monga mkuwa, mercury, chromium, cadmium, lead ndi arsenic, komanso zotsalira zambiri za mahomoni, zomwe zimayambitsa zitsulo zolemera kwambiri pazinthu zaulimi, zimawononga madzi apansi panthaka ndi nthaka, zimatenga nthawi yayitali kupanga organic nkhani kuti musinthe kukhala humus, ndikuwononga michere yambiri.

Kodi nchifukwa ninji chonde m'nthaka chikuwoneka chokwera makamaka popaka manyowa a nkhuku?

Izi ndichifukwa choti matumbo a nkhuku ndi owongoka, zimbudzi ndi mkodzo palimodzi, chifukwa chake zinthu zomwe zili mu manyowa a nkhuku, zopitilira 60% yazinthu zamtunduwu zili mu mawonekedwe a uric acid, kuwonongeka kwa uric acid kumapereka zinthu zambiri za nayitrogeni, Makilogalamu 500 a manyowa a nkhuku amafanana ndi 76.5 kg ya urea, mawonekedwe ake amawoneka ngati mbewu zimakula mwachilengedwe. Zinthu ngati izi zikachitika mu mtundu wa jekete kapena mphesa yamtengo wazipatso, zimatha kubweretsa matenda owopsa.

Izi zimachitika makamaka chifukwa chotsutsana pakati pa nayitrogeni ndi zinthu zosafunikira komanso kuchuluka kwa urea, komwe kumapangitsa kuti kuyamwa kwa zinthu zingapo zapakatikati ndikutsata kutsekeke, ndikupangitsa masamba achikaso, kuwola kwa umbilical, kulimbana kwa zipatso ndi matenda amiyendo ya nkhuku.

news748+ (3)

news748+ (4)

Kodi mudakumanapo ndi zotentha mbande kapena mizu yowola m'minda yanu ya zipatso kapena m'minda yamasamba?

Feteleza amathiridwa kwambiri, koma zokolola ndi mtundu sizingasinthike. Kodi pali zovuta zilizonse? monga kufa kwa theka la kutalika, kuumitsa nthaka, mapesi olemera, ndi zina zotero. Manyowa a nkhuku amafunika kuthirira nayonso mankhwala osavulaza asanagwiritsidwe ntchito m'nthaka!

Kugwiritsa ntchito manyowa a nkhuku mwanzeru

Manyowa a nkhuku ndi abwino kwambiri a feteleza, omwe ali ndi 1.63% ya nayitrogeni wangwiro, pafupifupi 1.54% P2O5 komanso potaziyamu 0.085%. Itha kukonzedwa mu feteleza wamafuta ndi akatswiri opanga zida zamafuta. Pambuyo pa nayonso mphamvu, tizilombo todetsa nkhumba ndi namsongole zidzathetsedwa pakukula ndi kutsika kwa kutentha. Mzere wopangira manyowa a nkhuku kwenikweni amaphatikizapo nayonso mphamvu → kuphwanya → kusakaniza kwa zosakaniza → granulation → kuyanika → kuzirala → kuwunika → metering ndi kusindikiza → kusungira zotsirizidwa.

Tchati chakuyenda kwa njira zopangira feteleza

news748+ (5)

Ndondomeko yoyenda yothira feteleza wopangidwa ndi matani 30,000 pachaka

 

Kumanga koyambirira kwa makina opangira feteleza

1. Matanki anayi amchere adzamangidwa pamalo opangira zinthu, 40m mulitali, 3m mulifupi ndi 1.2m dee-p, okhala ndi malo okwana 700 mita;

2. Malo opangira zinthu azikonzekera njanji yopepuka ya 320m;

3. Malo opanga amapangira malo a 1400 mita;

4. Ogwira ntchito opanga 3 amafunika mdera lopangira, ndipo ogwira ntchito 20 amafunika m'deralo;

5. Malo opangira zinthu amafunika kugula galimoto yonyamula matani atatu.

 

Zipangizo chachikulu mzere nkhuku ndowe kupanga:

1. Kumayambiriro zida za nayonso mphamvu wa manyowa a nkhuku: poyambira kompositi potembenuza makina, zokwawa kompositi potembenuza makina, makina oyendetsera kompositi odzipangira okha, makina opangira manyowa a kompositi

2. Zida zophwanya: theka-yonyowa zinthu crusher, unyolo crusher, ofukula crusher

3. Kusakaniza zida: chopingasa chosakanizira, chimbale chosakanizira

4. Zipangizo zowunikira zikuphatikiza Makina owunikira ozungulira ndi makina owunikira akututuma

5. Zida za Granulator: granulator yosokoneza, disc granulator, extrusion granulator, makina ng'oma granulator ndi makina ozungulira mozungulira

6. Kuyanika zida: makina oyimitsira ng'oma

7. Makina ozizira makina: makina ozizira ozungulira

8.Zida zowonjezera: wodyetsa wochulukirapo, dehydrator wa nkhuku, makina okutira, osonkhanitsa fumbi

9. Zida zogulitsa: zotengera lamba, chikepe chonyamula.

 

Njira zonse zopangira feteleza zimaphatikizapo:

1. Ukadaulo waluso wa mitundu yovuta komanso kuchuluka kwa zomera za bakiteriya.

2.ukadaulo wapamwamba wokonzekera zakuthupi ndi dongosolo la nayonso mphamvu.

3. Njira yabwino kwambiri yopangira feteleza (kaphatikizidwe kabwino kapangidwe kake ndi kapangidwe kake kangapangidwe mosinthasintha malinga ndi nthaka ndi mbeu).

4. Kulamulira koyenera kwaukadaulo wachiwiri (gasi wonyansa ndi fungo).

5. Njira zopangira ndi ukadaulo wopanga wa mzere wopanga feteleza.

 

Zinthu zomwe zimafunikira chidwi pakupanga manyowa a nkhuku

Kumaliza kwa zopangira:

Kukwanira kwa zopangira ndikofunikira kwambiri pakupanga feteleza. Malinga ndi zokumana nazo, kuyera kwa zinthu zonse zopangira kuyenera kufananizidwa ndi izi: 100-60 malo opangira pafupifupi 30-40%, 60 point to 1.00 mm in diameter of material about 35%, and about 25% -30% m'mimba mwake wa 1.00-2.00 mm. Komabe, popanga zinthu, zinthu zochulukirapo zimatha kubweretsa mavuto monga tinthu tating'onoting'ono tomwe timakhala tambiri chifukwa cha mamasukidwe akayendedwe abwino kwambiri.

Kukula Msinkhu wa Manyowa a Nkhuku

Manyowa a nkhuku ayenera kuwonongeka asanagwiritse ntchito. Tiziromboti tili mumanyowa a nkhuku ndi mazira awo, komanso mabakiteriya ena opatsirana, sadzayambika chifukwa chowola (kupesa). Pambuyo powola kwathunthu, manyowa a nkhuku adzakhala feteleza wapamwamba kwambiri.

1. Kukula Mwauzimu

Nthawi yomweyo ndi zinthu zitatu izi, mutha kuweruza manyowa a nkhuku makamaka omwe apsa.

1. Kwenikweni palibe fungo loipa; 2. Hyphae woyera; 3. Manyowa a nkhuku ali otakasuka.

Nthawi yothira nthawi zambiri imakhala pafupifupi miyezi itatu pansi pazachilengedwe, zomwe zimathamanga kwambiri ngati wowonjezerapo awonjezeredwa. Kutengera kutentha kozungulira, masiku 20-30 amafunikira kwambiri, ndipo masiku 7-10 amatha kutha pakapangidwe ka fakitale.

2. Chinyezi

Madzi ayenera kusinthidwa ndowe za nkhuku zisanamwe. Pokonza feteleza wa feteleza, kuyenera kwamadzi ndikofunikira kwambiri. Chifukwa wothandizirayo ali ndi mabakiteriya amoyo, ngati ali owuma kwambiri kapena onyowa kwambiri amakhudza nayonso mphamvu ya tizilombo, nthawi zambiri amayenera kusungidwa pa 60 ~ 65%.


Nthawi yamakalata: Jun-18-2021