Gwiritsani ntchito zinyalala zanyama kuti mupange fetereza wachilengedwe

Use livestock waste to produce biological organic fertilizer (1)

Kuchita moyenera komanso kugwiritsa ntchito moyenera manyowa a ziweto kumatha kubweretsa ndalama zambiri kwa alimi ambiri, komanso kukweza kukulitsa malonda awo.

Use livestock waste to produce biological organic fertilizer (3)

 

Tizilombo organic fetereza ndi mtundu wa feteleza wokhala ndi ntchito ya feteleza wa tizilombo tating'onoting'ono ndi feteleza, womwe umachokera makamaka ku zotsalira za nyama ndi zomera (monga manyowa a ziweto, udzu wa mbewu, ndi zina zambiri) ndipo amapangidwa ndi mankhwala osavulaza.

Izi zimatsimikizira kuti feteleza wakuthupi ali ndi zigawo ziwiri: (1) ntchito inayake yaying'ono. (2) mankhwala zinyalala organic.

(1) Tizilombo tomwe timagwira bwino ntchito

Tizilombo tating'onoting'ono tomwe timagwiritsa ntchito feteleza wanyowa nthawi zambiri amatanthauza tizilombo tating'onoting'ono, kuphatikiza mitundu yosiyanasiyana ya mabakiteriya, bowa ndi actinomycetes, zomwe zingalimbikitse kusintha kwa michere ya nthaka ndikukula kwa mbewu mutagwiritsa ntchito nthaka. Ntchito zina zitha kusankhidwa motere:

1. Mabakiteriya okonzekera nayitrogeni: (1) mabakiteriya ophwanya nayitrogeni: makamaka amatanthauza mbewu ya nyemba rhizobia monga: rhizobia, nitrogen-fixing rhizobia, mbande za ammonia-fixing rhizobia, ndi zina; Mabakiteriya osakhazikika a nyemba zokhala ndi bakiteriya monga Franklinella, Cyanobacteria, kukhathamiritsa kwake kwa nayitrogeni ndikokwera. Bacteria Mabakiteriya okonzekera kupanga nayitrogeni omwe amapezeka: , monga mtundu wa Pseudomonas, lipogenic nitrogen-fixing helicobacteria, ndi zina zambiri.

2. Phosphorus Kutha (Kutha) bowa: Bacillus (monga Bacillus megacephalus, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus humilus, etc.), Pseudomonas (monga Pseudomonas fluorescens), mabakiteriya okhazikika a Nitrogen, Rhizobium, Thiobacillus thiooxidans, Penicilliumger, Aspergillus , Streptomyces, ndi zina zambiri.

Use livestock waste to produce biological organic fertilizer (2)

3. Mabakiteriya a potaziyamu osungunuka (kusungunuka): mabakiteriya a silicate (monga colloid Bacillus, colloid Bacillus, cyclosporillus), mabakiteriya osakhala a potaziyamu.

4. Maantibayotiki: Trichoderma (monga Trichoderma harzianum), actinomycetes (monga Streptomyces flatus, Streptomyces sp. Sp.), Pseudomonas fluorescens, Bacillus polymyxa, Bacillus subtilis mitundu, ndi zina zambiri.

5. Kukulitsa mabakiteriya omwe amalimbikitsa kukula ndi bowa wolimbikitsa kukula kwa bowa.

6. Mabakiteriya owala kwambiri: mitundu ingapo yamtundu wa Pseudomonas gracilis ndi mitundu ingapo yamtundu wa Pseudomonas gracilis. Mitunduyi ndi mabakiteriya opatsa chidwi omwe amatha kumera pamaso pa haidrojeni ndipo ali oyenera kupanga feteleza wachilengedwe.

7. Tizilombo toyambitsa matenda komanso tizilombo toyambitsa matenda: Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae, Phylloidase, Cordyceps ndi Bacillus.

8. Mabakiteriya owola ma cellulose: thermophilic lateral spora, Trichoderma, Mucor, ndi zina.

9. Tizilombo tina tomwe timagwira ntchito: tizilombo todutsa titalowa m'nthaka, titha kutulutsa zinthu zakuthupi kuti zithandizire ndikukula kwa mbewu. Ena mwa iwo amadziyeretsa ndikuwononga mphamvu ya poizoni wapansi, monga yisiti ndi bakiteriya wa lactic acid.

2) Zinthu zakuthupi zochokera kutsalira za nyama zomwe zawonongeka. Zinthu zachilengedwe zopanda nayonso mphamvu, sizingagwiritsidwe ntchito mwachindunji kupanga feteleza, komanso sizingabwere kumsika.

Pofuna kuti mabakiteriya azilumikizana kwathunthu ndi zopangidwazo ndikupeza mphamvu ya nayonso mphamvu, imatha kuyendetsedwa mofananira compmakina osinthira monga pansipa:

Use livestock waste to produce biological organic fertilizer (4)

Zipangizo zomwe zimagwiritsidwa ntchito ndimagulu

(1) Ndowe: nkhuku, nkhumba, ng'ombe, nkhosa, kavalo ndi manyowa ena azinyama.

(2) Mphasa: udzu wa chimanga, udzu, udzu wa tirigu, udzu wa soya ndi mapesi ena azomera.

(3) mankhusu ndi chinangwa. Mpunga mankhusu ufa, chiponde mankhusu ufa, chiponde mmera ufa, chinangwa mpunga, bowa chinangwa, etc.

(4) mapisi: masamba a distiller, masosi a msuzi wa soya, mavinyo a viniga, mapira aubweya, mapiritsi a xylose, mavitamini a enzyme, masamba a adyo, mapiritsi a shuga, ndi zina zambiri.

(5) chakudya chamakeke. Keke ya soya, chakudya cha soya, mafuta, keke yogwiriridwa, ndi zina zambiri.

(6) Matope ena apanyumba, matope a fyuluta oyenga shuga, matope a shuga, bagasse, ndi zina zambiri.

Zipangazi zitha kugwiritsidwa ntchito ngati zopangira zothandizira michere kupanga feteleza wachilengedwe pambuyo nayonso mphamvu.

Use livestock waste to produce biological organic fertilizer (6)

Zinthu ziwirizi zitha kupangidwa ndi fetereza wachilengedwe.

1) Njira yowonjezeramo

1, sankhani mabakiteriya enieni: atha kugwiritsidwa ntchito ngati mtundu umodzi kapena iwiri, osapitilira mitundu itatu, chifukwa mabakiteriya omwe amasankha kwambiri, amapikisana ndi michere pakati pawo, amatsogolera kuchitidwe kwa zomwe zachitikazo.

2. Kuwerengetsa kuchuluka kwa kuwonjezera: molingana ndi muyezo wa NY884-2012 wa feteleza wazomera ku China, kuchuluka kwa mabakiteriya amoyo wa organic-organic feteleza kuyenera kufikira 0.2 miliyoni / g. Mu tani imodzi ya zinthu zakuthupi, zoposa 2 kg zamagulu omwe amagwiritsidwa ntchito ndi kuchuluka kwa mabakiteriya amoyo ≥10 biliyoni / g ayenera kuwonjezeredwa. Ngati kuchuluka kwa mabakiteriya amoyo ndi 1 biliyoni / g, opitilira 20 kg adzafunika kuwonjezedwa, ndi zina zambiri. Mayiko osiyanasiyana akuyenera kuwonjezera m'njira zosiyanasiyana.

3. Njira yowonjezerapo: Onjezerani bakiteriya (ufa) wogwira ntchito kuzinthu zopangidwa ndi thovu malinga ndi njira yomwe ili m'buku la opareshoni, yesani mofanana ndikugawa.

4. Zoyenera kusamala: (1) Musayumidwe ndi kutentha kwambiri kuposa 100 ℃, apo ayi ipha mabakiteriya ogwira ntchito. Ngati kuli kofunika kuti ziume, ziyenera kuwonjezedwa mutayanika. (2) Chifukwa cha zifukwa zosiyanasiyana, mabakiteriya omwe ali mu fetereza wopangidwa ndi njira zowerengera nthawi zambiri samakhala ndi chidziwitso chokwanira, chifukwa chake pakukonzekera, tizilombo tomwe timagwira ntchito timakhala tambiri kuposa 10% kuposa deta .

2) njira yachiwiri yokalamba ndi kukulitsa chikhalidwe

Poyerekeza ndi njira yowonjezeramo, njirayi ili ndi mwayi wopulumutsa mtengo wa mabakiteriya. Choyipa chake ndikuti kuyesa kumafunikira kuti mudziwe kuchuluka kwa ma microbes oti awonjezere, ndikuwonjezeranso pang'ono. Kawirikawiri amalimbikitsidwa kuti ndalama zowonjezerazo zikhale 20% kapena kupitilira njira zowonjezerazo ndikufikira muyezo wa fetereza wapadziko lonse kudzera mu njira yachiwiri yokalamba. Masitepe a ntchito ndi awa:

 

1. Sankhani mabakiteriya enieni (ufa): atha kukhala mtundu umodzi kapena iwiri, osapitilira mitundu itatu, chifukwa mabakiteriya ambiri amasankha, kupikisana pazakudya pakati pawo, zomwe zimayambitsa mabakiteriya osiyanasiyana.

2. Kuwerengetsa kuchuluka kwa kuwonjezera: kutengera mulingo wa feteleza wa zamoyo zonse ku China, kuchuluka kwa mabakiteriya amoyo wa organic-organic feteleza kuyenera kufikira 0.2 miliyoni / g. Mu tani imodzi ya zinthu zakuthupi, kuchuluka kwa mabakiteriya amoyo ≥10 biliyoni / g wa tizilombo tating'onoting'ono tating'onoting'ono (ufa) ayenera kuwonjezeredwa osachepera 0,4 kg. Ngati kuchuluka kwa mabakiteriya amoyo ndi 1 biliyoni / g, opitilira 4 kg adzafunika kuwonjezedwa, ndi zina zambiri. Mayiko osiyanasiyana akuyenera kutsatira njira zosiyanasiyana zowonjezerapo.

3. Njira yowonjezerapo: bakiteriya wogwira ntchito (ufa) ndi chimanga cha tirigu, mpunga wa mankhusu, chimanga kapena china chilichonse cha kusakaniza, onjezerani mwachindunji kuzinthu zopangidwa ndi thovu, kusakaniza wogawana, zokhazikika kwa masiku 3-5 kuti zidziwike mabakiteriya ogwira ntchito amadzipangira okha

4. Kuwongolera chinyezi ndi kutentha: panthawi yamafuta okwanira, chinyezi ndi kutentha ziyenera kuwongoleredwa molingana ndi mawonekedwe a bakiteriya ogwira ntchito. Ngati kutentha ndikotentha kwambiri, kutalika kwa stacking kuyenera kuchepetsedwa.

5. Kudziwika bwino kwa mabakiteriya ogwira ntchito: kutha kwa kutsekemera, kusampula ndi kutumiza ku bungweli ndi luso lotha kuzindikira tizilombo tating'onoting'ono kuti ayese mayeso ngati zili ndi tizilombo tina tomwe tingakwaniritse, ngati zingatheke, mutha kupanga fetereza wakuthupi mwa njirayi. Ngati izi sizikwaniritsidwa, onjezerani kuchuluka kwa mabakiteriya ogwira ntchito mpaka 40% ya njira yowonjezeramo ndikuwunikiranso kuyesaku mpaka kupambana.

6. Chenjezo: Musati zouma pa kutentha pamwamba 100 ℃, apo ayi kupha mabakiteriya zinchito. Ngati kuli kofunika kuti ziume, ziyenera kuwonjezedwa mutayanika.

Use livestock waste to produce biological organic fertilizer (5)

Mu fayilo ya kupanga feteleza wa organic-organic Pambuyo pa nayonso mphamvu, nthawi zambiri imakhala ya ufa, yomwe nthawi zambiri imawuluka ndi mphepo m'nyengo yadzuwa, ndikupangitsa kutayika kwa zopangira ndi kuipitsa fumbi. Chifukwa chake, kuti muchepetse fumbi ndikupewa kuphika,ndondomeko ya granulation amagwiritsidwa ntchito nthawi zambiri. Mutha kugwiritsa ntchito granulator woyambitsa mano pachithunzipa pamwambapa cha granulation, itha kugwiritsidwa ntchito ku humic acid, mpweya wakuda, kaolin ndi zina zovuta kupanga zinthu zopangira.


Nthawi yamakalata: Jun-18-2021