Kuwongolera Kwabwino kwa Manyowa

Kulamulira kwa kupanga feteleza wachilengedweMwachizoloŵezi, ndikulumikizana kwa zinthu zakuthupi ndi zachilengedwe pakupanga manyowa. Kumbali imodzi, chiwongolero chimayanjana ndikugwirizana. Kumbali inayi, ma Windrows osiyanasiyana amasakanikirana, chifukwa cha mitundu yosiyanasiyana komanso kuwonongeka kosiyanasiyana.

Kuwongolera chinyezi
Chinyezi ndichofunikira kwambiri kuti manyowa achilengedwe. Pakuchulukitsa manyowa, chinyezi chomwe chimapangidwa ndi choyambirira chimakhala 40% mpaka 70%, zomwe zimatsimikizira kuti kompositi ndiyabwino. Chinyezi choyenera kwambiri ndi 60-70%. Chinyezi chokwera kwambiri kapena chotsika kwambiri chimatha kukhudza zochitika za mlengalenga kuti malamulo amchere azichitidwa asanafike. Chinyezi chakuthupi chikakhala chochepera 60%, kutentha kumakwera pang'onopang'ono ndipo kuwonongeka kumakhala kotsika. Chinyezi chikapitirira 70%, mpweya umalephereka ndipo kupangika kwa anaerobic kudzapangidwa, komwe sikungathandize kuti nayonso mphamvu ipite patsogolo.

Kafukufuku wasonyeza kuti moyenera kumawonjezera chinyezi cha zopangira zitha kupititsa patsogolo kukhwima ndi kukhazikika. Chinyezi chizikhala pa 50-60% koyambirira kwa kompositi kenako zisungidwe 40% mpaka 50%. Chinyezi chiyenera kuyang'aniridwa pansi pa 30% mutapanga manyowa. Ngati chinyezi ndichokwera, chiyenera kuyanika kutentha kwa 80 ℃.

Kutentha kulamulira.

Ndi zotsatira za ntchito yaying'ono, yomwe imathandizira kulumikizana kwa zida. Kutentha koyamba kwa kompositi ndikama 30 ~ 50 therm, tizilombo tating'onoting'onoting'onoting'onoting'onoting'onoting'onoting'onoting'ono tomwe timapangitsa kuti tizilombo toyambitsa matenda tizilombo toyambitsa matenda tizilombo toyambitsa matenda tithe kusungunuka mofulumira m'kanthawi kochepa, motero kumalimbikitsa kutentha kwa mulu. Kutentha kwakukulu ndi 55 ~ 60 ℃. Kutentha kwakukulu ndikofunikira kupha tizilombo toyambitsa matenda, mazira a tizilombo, nthangala za udzu ndi zinthu zina za poizoni komanso zovulaza. Kutentha kwa 55 ℃, 65 ℃ ndi 70 for kwa maola ochepa kumatha kupha zinthu zoyipa. Nthawi zambiri zimatenga milungu iwiri kapena itatu kutentha kotentha.

Tanena kuti chinyezi ndichinthu chomwe chimakhudza kutentha kwa kompositi. Kuchuluka kwa chinyezi kumachepetsa kutentha kwa kompositi, ndikusintha chinyezi kumapindulitsa pakukweza kotentha kumapeto kwa nayonso mphamvu. Kutentha kumatha kutsitsidwanso powonjezera chinyezi chowonjezera.

Kutembenuza muluwo ndi njira ina yothetsera kutentha. Potembenuza muluwo, kutentha kwa muluwo kumatha kuyendetsedwa bwino, ndipo madzi amatuluka mpweya komanso kuthamanga kwa mpweya kumatha kupitilizidwa. Pulogalamu yakompositi potembenuza makina ndi njira yabwino yoziziritsira kanthawi kochepa. Ili ndi mawonekedwe a ntchito yosavuta, mtengo wotsika mtengo komanso magwiridwe antchito abwino. The cMakina otembenuzira ompost imatha kuwongolera kutentha ndi nthawi yamafuta.

Kulamulira kwa chiŵerengero cha C / N.

Chiŵerengero choyenera cha C / N chitha kulimbikitsa kuyamwa kosalala. Ngati gawo la C / N ndilokwera kwambiri, chifukwa chakusowa kwa nayitrogeni komanso kuchepa kwa chilengedwe chomwe chikukula, kuchepa kwa zinthu zakuthupi kumachedwetsa, ndikupangitsa kuti kompositi izizungulira. Ngati chiŵerengero cha C / N chili chotsika kwambiri, kaboni amatha kugwiritsidwa ntchito mokwanira, ndipo nayitrogeni wambiri atha kutayika ngati ammonia. Sikuti zimangokhudza chilengedwe, komanso zimachepetsa mphamvu ya feteleza wa nayitrogeni. Tizilombo toyambitsa matenda timapanga tizilombo toyambitsa matenda panthawi ya nayonso mphamvu. Protoplasm imakhala ndi 50% kaboni, 5% ya nayitrogeni ndi 0.25% ya phosphoric acid. Ofufuzawo akuti chiŵerengero choyenera cha C / N ndi 20-30%.

Chiŵerengero cha C / N cha kompositi yosinthika chingasinthidwe powonjezera zida zapamwamba za C kapena N. Zida zina, monga udzu, namsongole, nthambi ndi masamba, zimakhala ndi fiber, lignin ndi pectin. Chifukwa chokhala ndi kaboni / nayitrogeni wambiri, itha kugwiritsidwa ntchito ngati zowonjezera zowonjezera kaboni. Manyowa a ziweto ndi nkhuku ali ndi nayitrogeni yambiri ndipo amatha kugwiritsidwa ntchito ngati yowonjezera nayitrogeni. Mwachitsanzo, kuchuluka kwa magwiritsidwe antchito a ammonia nayitrogeni mu manyowa a nkhumba kuzilombo ndi 80%, zomwe zingalimbikitse kukula ndi kuberekana kwa tizilombo ndikuchepetsa kompositi.

Pulogalamu ya makina atsopano opangira feteleza ndi yoyenera panthawiyi. Zowonjezera zimatha kuwonjezeredwa pazofunikira zosiyanasiyana pomwe zopangira zimalowa mumakina.

Ap-kuuluka komanso kupezeka kwa oxygen.

Kwa fayilo ya nayonso mphamvu ya manyowa, ndikofunika kukhala ndi mpweya wokwanira komanso mpweya wokwanira. Ntchito yake yayikulu ndikupereka mpweya wofunikira pakukula kwa tizilombo. Kutentha kokwanira komanso nthawi yothira manyowa zitha kuwongoleredwa posintha kutentha kwa mulu kudzera pakuyenda kwatsopano. Kuwonjezeka kwa mpweya kumatha kuchotsa chinyezi ndikukhalabe ndi kutentha kwambiri. Mpweya wabwino ndi mpweya zimachepetsa kutayika kwa nayitrogeni ndi fungo la kompositi.

Chinyezi cha feteleza wamafuta chimakhudza kupezeka kwa mpweya, zochita zazing'onoting'ono komanso kugwiritsa ntchito mpweya wabwino. Ndicho chinthu chofunikira chaaerobic composting. Tiyenera kuwongolera chinyezi ndi mpweya wabwino kutengera mawonekedwe azinthuzo kuti tikwaniritse kulumikizana kwa chinyezi ndi mpweya. Nthawi yomweyo, onse atha kulimbikitsa kukula ndi kuberekana kwa tizilombo ndikuthandizira kutentha.

Kafukufuku wasonyeza kuti kuwonjezeka kwa mpweya kumawonjezeka mopitilira 60 ℃, kumakula pang'onopang'ono kupitilira 60 ℃, ndipo ili pafupi ndi zero kuposa 70 ℃. Mpweya wabwino ndi mpweya ziyenera kusinthidwa malingana ndi kutentha kosiyanasiyana. 

PH kulamulira.

Mtengo wa pH umakhudza njira yonse yamafuta. Pachiyambi choyamba cha manyowa, pH idzakhudza ntchito ya mabakiteriya. Mwachitsanzo, pH = 6.0 ndiye chinthu chofunikira kwambiri pa manyowa a nkhumba ndi utuchi. Imaletsa mpweya woipa ndi kutentha kwa pH <6.0. Pa pH> 6.0, mpweya wake woipa komanso kutentha kumakulirakulira. Mu gawo lotentha kwambiri, kuphatikiza kwa pH yayikulu ndi kutentha kwambiri kumayambitsa ammonia volatilization. Tizilombo tating'onoting'ono timawonongeka kukhala ma organic acid kudzera kompositi, yomwe imatsitsa pH mpaka 5.0. Mavitamini osakanikirana amadzimadzi amasanduka kutentha. Nthawi yomweyo, kukokoloka kwa ammonia ndi zinthu zakuthupi kumawonjezera phindu la pH. Pambuyo pake, imakhazikika pamlingo wapamwamba. Mulingo wambiri wa kompositi ukhoza kupezeka pamatenthedwe apamwamba a kompositi okhala ndi ma pH kuyambira 7.5 mpaka 8.5. PH wapamwamba ungayambitsenso ammonia volatilization yochulukirapo, kotero pH imatha kuchepetsedwa powonjezera alum ndi phosphoric acid.

Mwachidule, sizovuta kuyendetsa bwino komanso mokwanira nayonso mphamvu ya zinthu zopangira. Pogwiritsa ntchito chinthu chimodzi, izi ndi zophweka. Komabe, zida zosiyanasiyana zimayenderana ndikuletsana. Pofuna kuzindikira kukhathamira konse kwa zinthu zopangira manyowa, ndikofunikira kugwirira ntchito limodzi. Pomwe kayendetsedwe kake kali koyenera, nayonso mphamvu imatha kuyenda bwino, ndikupanga maziko opangafeteleza wapamwamba kwambiri.


Nthawi yamakalata: Jun-18-2021