Kugwiritsa Ntchito Moyenera feteleza wamagetsi

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Feteleza wamagetsi amapangidwa mwanjira inayake kuchokera kuzinthu zachilengedwe, ndi zinthu zopatsa thanzi michere kuti zikule ndi njira zathupi kapena zamankhwala.

Zakudya Zamadzimadzi Zamakina

Feteleza wamafuta ali ndi zofunikira zitatu zofunika pakukula kwa mbewu. Mitundu ya feteleza ili mumitundu yambiri. Zitsanzo zina za feteleza wamagulu ndi ammonium sulphate, ammonium phosphate, ammonium nitrate, urea, ammonium chloride etc.

Kodi feteleza wa NPK ndi chiyani?

☆ Feteleza wa nayitrogeni
Mizu ya zomera imatha kuyamwa feteleza wa nayitrogeni. Nayitrogeni ndiye gawo lalikulu la mapuloteni (kuphatikiza ma enzyme ndi coenzyme), nucleic acid ndi phospholipids. Awa ndi magawo ofunikira a protoplasm, nucleus ndi biofilm, omwe ali ndi gawo lapadera pobzala zofunikira. Nayitrogeni ndi gawo la chlorophyll, chifukwa chake imagwirizana kwambiri ndi photosynthesis. Kuchuluka kwa nayitrogeni kumakhudza mwachindunji magawano ndikukula kwa maselo. Chifukwa chake, kupezeka kwa feteleza wa nayitrogeni ndikofunikira kwambiri. Urea, ammonium nitrate ndi ammonium sulphate amagwiritsidwa ntchito kwambiri paulimi.

☆ Manyowa a Phosphatic
Phosphorus itha kulimbikitsa kukula kwa mizu, maluwa, mbewu ndi zipatso. Phosphorus amatenga nawo mbali m'njira zosiyanasiyana zamagetsi. Phosphorus ili ndi meristems yambiri, yomwe imakhala ndi zochitika zambiri m'moyo. Chifukwa chake, kugwiritsa ntchito feteleza wa P kumathandiza kwambiri wolima, nthambi ndi kukula kwa mizu. Phosphorus imalimbikitsa kutembenuka ndi mayendedwe a chakudya, zomwe zimapangitsa kukula kwa mbewu, mizu ndi ma tubers. Itha kukulitsa zokolola za mbewu.

☆ Feteleza wa potassic
Feteleza wa potassic amagwiritsidwa ntchito popititsa patsogolo kukula kwa tsinde, kusuntha kwa madzi ndikulimbikitsa maluwa ndi zipatso. Potaziyamu (K) imakhala ngati ion m'mitengo, yomwe imayang'ana kwambiri pazomera, monga kukula, cambium ndi masamba, etc. Potaziyamu imalimbikitsa kuphatikiza kwa mapuloteni, imathandizira kuyenda kwa shuga ndikuwonetsetsa maselo mayamwidwe amadzi.

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Ubwino wa feteleza wamankhwala

Feteleza zamagulu akuthandiza zomera kukula
Amakhala ndi chimodzi kapena zingapo zofunika kukula monga nitrojeni, phosphorous, ndi potaziyamu ndi zina zambiri. Zakudyazi zikawonjezeredwa m'nthaka, zimakwaniritsa zofunikira za mbeu ndikuwapatsa zakudya zomwe mwachilengedwe zimasowa kapena zimawathandiza kusunga michere yomwe yatayika. Feteleza zamagulu amapereka mitundu inayake ya NPK kuti athane ndi dothi komanso zomera zopanda michere.

Feteleza zamagulu zotsika mtengo kuposa feteleza
Feteleza zamagulu amawononga ndalama zochepa kwambiri kuposa feteleza. Kumbali imodzi, kuwona kuchokera ku njira zopangira feteleza. Sikovuta kupeza zifukwa zomwe feteleza amtengo wake uliri: kufunika kokolola zinthu zogwiritsa ntchito feteleza, komanso mtengo wokwera kutsimikiziridwa ndi mabungwe owongolera aboma.
Kumbali inayi, feteleza wamankhwala omwe amakhala wotsika mtengo ndi chifukwa amanyamula michere yambiri pa kilogalamu yolemera, pomwe feteleza ambiri amafunikira mulingo womwewo wa michere. Wina amafunika mapaundi angapo a feteleza kuti apereke michere yofanana ya nthaka yomwe kilogalamu imodzi ya feteleza wamankhwala imapereka. Zifukwa ziwirizi zimakhudza kagwiritsidwe ntchito ka feteleza wamankhwala ndi feteleza. Malipoti ena akusonyeza kuti msika wa feteleza waku US ukhale pafupifupi $ 40 Biliyoni pomwe feteleza wake amakhala pafupifupi $ 60 miliyoni. Zina zonse ndi gawo la feteleza zosiyanasiyana zopangira.

Kupereka chakudya msanga
Kupereka chakudya chaposachedwa komanso mtengo wotsika wogula kunachulukitsa feteleza wamba. Feteleza zamankhwala zakhala zofunikira kwambiri m'mafamu ambiri, mayadi ndi minda, ndipo zitha kukhala gawo lofunikira panjira yosamalira udzu wathanzi. Komabe, kodi feteleza wamankhwala sawononga nthaka ndi zomera? Kodi palibe zinthu zilizonse zofunika kuzindikiridwa mukamagwiritsa ntchito feteleza wamafuta? Yankho lake ndi NO!

Zotsatira zachilengedwe zogwiritsa ntchito feteleza wopanga

Kuwonongeka kwa gwero lamadzi labisala
Zina mwazinthu zomwe zimagwiritsidwa ntchito popanga feteleza zamankhwala zitha kukhala ndi zovuta pazachilengedwe zikaloledwa kulowa m'madzi. Nitrogeni yomwe imadutsa m'madzi apamtunda ndi malo olimapo amawerengera 51% yazomwe anthu amachita. Amoniya nayitrogeni ndi nitrate ndizoyipitsa zazikulu m'mitsinje ndi nyanja, zomwe zimabweretsa kudulidwa kwamadzi ndi kuwonongeka kwa madzi pansi.

Kuwononga dongosolo la nthaka
● Pogwiritsa ntchito feteleza wamankhwala kwa nthawi yayitali komanso kwakukulu, mavuto ena azachilengedwe adzawonekera, monga acidification yanthaka ndi kutumphuka. Chifukwa chogwiritsa ntchito feteleza wochuluka wa nayitrogeni, m'malo mwa fetereza wa organic, minda ina yam'malo otentha ili ndi nthaka yolimba, zomwe zimapangitsa kuti pakhale kulima. Zotsatira za feteleza wamafuta panthaka ndizabwino ndipo sizingasinthike.

● Kugwiritsa ntchito feteleza wamankhwala kwa nthawi yayitali kumatha kusintha nthaka ya pH, kukhumudwitsa zachilengedwe, kuwonjezera tizirombo, komanso kuthandizira kutulutsa mpweya wowonjezera kutentha.
● Mitundu yambiri ya feteleza imakhala ndi acidic yambiri, yomwe nthawi zambiri imawonjezera acidity m'nthaka, potero imachepetsa zamoyo zopindulitsa ndikudodometsa kukula kwa mbewu. Pokhumudwitsa chilengedwechi, kugwiritsa ntchito feteleza kwa nthawi yayitali kumatha kubweretsa kusalingana kwamankhwala m'zomera.
● Kugwiritsa ntchito mankhwala mobwerezabwereza kumapangitsa kuti pakhale mankhwala owopsa ngati arsenic, cadmium, ndi uranium m'nthaka. Mankhwala oopsawa amatha kulowa zipatso ndi ndiwo zamasamba zanu.

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Kukhala ndi chidziwitso chokwanira chogwiritsa ntchito feteleza kumatha kupewa zinyalala zosafunikira pogula feteleza ndikuwonjezera zokolola.

Kusankha feteleza malinga ndi nthaka

Musanagule fetereza, m'pofunika kudziwa bwino nthaka pH. Ngati dothi ndilolimba, titha kuwonjezera kugwiritsa ntchito fetereza wa organic, kuyang'anira mphamvu ya nayitrogeni ndikukhalabe ndi fetereza wa phosphatic.

Kugwiritsa ntchito limodzi feteleza wachilengedwe

Ndizofunikira kuti ulimi ugwiritse ntchito feteleza wachilengedwe ndi feteleza wamankhwala. Kafukufuku wasonyeza kuti ndizopindulitsa panthaka yolowetsa zinthu m'nthaka. Pogwiritsa ntchito manyowa ndi feteleza wamankhwala, zinthu zanthaka zikusintha ndikusinthana kwa nthaka ya cation ndiyabwino, zomwe zimathandizira kukonza magwiridwe antchito a nthaka ndikuwonjezera kuyamwa kwa michere. Zimathandizira kukonza mtundu wa mbewu, kumapangitsanso mapuloteni, ma amino acid ndi zakudya zina, komanso kuchepetsa nitrate ndi nitrite wokhutira ndi masamba ndi zipatso.

Kusankha njira yoyenera ya umuna

Pogwiritsa ntchito njira za umuna ndi zachilengedwe, nitrate wamasamba ndi mbewu ndi mitundu ya nayitrogeni m'nthaka ndi ofanana kwambiri. kuchuluka kwa nayitrogeni m'nthaka, kuchuluka kwa nitrate m'masamba, makamaka kumapeto kwake. Chifukwa chake, kugwiritsa ntchito feteleza wamankhwala kuyenera kukhala koyambirira osati kwambiri. Feteleza nayitrogeni sikoyenera kufalikira, mwinamwake chifukwa cha volatilization kapena kutayika. Chifukwa cha kuchepa, feteleza wa phosphatic ayenera kukhala wokhazikika kwambiri.

Feteleza wamagulu amakomera kwambiri pakukula kwa zomera, komanso amakhudza kwambiri chilengedwe.

Pali chiopsezo cha kuipitsidwa kwa madzi apansi panthaka komanso zovuta zachilengedwe zomwe feteleza wamankhwala amabweretsa. Onetsetsani kuti mukumvetsetsa zomwe zikuchitika padziko lapansi pansi pa mapazi anu, kuti musankhe mwanzeru.

Mfundo yogwiritsira ntchito feteleza wamagetsi

Kuchepetsa kuchuluka kwa feteleza wamankhwala omwe mumagwiritsa ntchito ndikuphatikiza ndi fetereza. Pangani matenda opatsirana malinga ndi momwe nthaka ilili ndikugwiritsa ntchito feteleza malinga ndi zosowa zenizeni.


Nthawi yamakalata: Jun-18-2021