KODI mumapanga bwanji feteleza kuchokera kuzakudya zopanda pake?

Zinyalala za chakudya zakhala zikuchulukirachulukira pamene chiwerengero cha anthu padziko lapansi chikukula komanso mizinda ikukula. Zakudya mamiliyoni ochuluka zimaponyedwa m'zinyalala padziko lonse lapansi chaka chilichonse. Pafupifupi 30% ya zipatso, ndiwo zamasamba, tirigu, nyama ndi zakudya zopakidwa padziko lapansi zimatayidwa chaka chilichonse. Kuwononga zakudya kwasanduka vuto lalikulu lachilengedwe mdziko lililonse. Zinyalala zambiri zimayambitsa kuipitsa kwakukulu, komwe kumawononga mpweya, madzi, dothi komanso zamoyo zosiyanasiyana. Kumbali imodzi, zinyalala za chakudya zimawononga anaerobicly kuti zipange mpweya wowonjezera kutentha monga methane, kaboni dayokisaidi ndi mpweya wina wowopsa. Zinyalala za chakudya zimapanga matani 3.3 biliyoni amweya wowonjezera kutentha. Zinyalala za chakudya, kumbali inayo, zimaponyedwa m'matope omwe amatenga malo akulu, ndikupanga gasi wonyamula pansi ndi fumbi loyandama. Ngati leachate yomwe imatulutsidwa nthawi yochotsa zinyalala isayendetsedwe bwino, imayambitsa kuipitsa kwachiwiri, kuipitsa nthaka komanso kuipitsa madzi apansi panthaka.

news54 (1)

 Kuwotcha ndi kutaya zinyalala kuli ndi zovuta zazikulu, ndipo kugwiritsanso ntchito zinyalala za chakudya kumathandizira kuteteza zachilengedwe ndikuwonjezera kugwiritsidwa ntchito kwa zongowonjezwdwa.

Momwe zinyalala za chakudya zimapangidwira feteleza.

Zipatso, ndiwo zamasamba, zopangidwa ndi mkaka, chimanga, buledi, malo a khofi, zipolopolo, mazira ndi nyama zitha kupangidwa. Zinyalala zakudya ndizopanga kompositi yomwe ndi gwero lalikulu lazinthu zachilengedwe. Zinyalala zazakudya zimaphatikizira zinthu zosiyanasiyana zamankhwala, monga wowuma, mapadi, mapuloteni amadzimadzi ndi ma inorganic salt, ndi N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, K zina zake. Zinyalala za chakudya zimakhala ndi zamoyo zabwino, zomwe zimatha kufikira 85%. Ili ndi mawonekedwe azinthu zachilengedwe zambiri, chinyezi chambiri komanso michere yambiri, ndipo ili ndi phindu lobwezeretsanso kwambiri. Chifukwa zinyalala za chakudya zimakhala ndi chinyezi chambiri komanso kapangidwe kake kocheperako, ndikofunikira kusakaniza zinyalala zatsopano ndi othandizira, zomwe zimatenga chinyezi chowonjezera ndikuwonjezera kapangidwe kosakanikirana.

Zinyalala zakudya zimakhala ndi zinthu zambiri, ndipo mapuloteni osakanikirana amawerengera 15% - 23%, mafuta a 17% - 24%, mchere wa 3% - 5%, Ca wa 54%, sodium chloride ya 3% - 4%, etc.

Njira zamaukadaulo ndi zida zina zofananira pakusintha zinyalala kukhala feteleza.

Ndizodziwika bwino kuti kugwiritsidwa ntchito kotsika kwa zinthu zochotseka kumayambitsa kuipitsa chilengedwe. Pakadali pano, mayiko ena otukuka adakhazikitsa njira yabwino yochizira chakudya. Mwachitsanzo, ku Germany, zinyalala zakuchiritsa zimathandizidwa makamaka pogwiritsa ntchito kompositi komanso kuthira anaerobic, ndikupanga pafupifupi matani 5 miliyoni a feteleza wazinyalala wazakudya chaka chilichonse. Pogwiritsa ntchito zinyalala zodyera ku UK, pafupifupi matani 20 miliyoni a mpweya wa CO2 amatha kuchepetsedwa chaka chilichonse. Kuumba kompositi kumagwiritsidwa ntchito pafupifupi 95% yamizinda yaku US. Kompositi imatha kubweretsa zabwino zosiyanasiyana zachilengedwe, kuphatikizapo kuchepetsa kuwonongeka kwa madzi, komanso phindu lazachuma ndilambiri.

♦ Kutaya madzi m'thupi

Madzi ndiye gawo lalikulu lazakudya zoyipa zomwe zimawerengedwa 70% -90%, yomwe ndi maziko a kuwonongeka kwa zinyalala. Chifukwa chake, kusowa kwa madzi m'thupi ndi gawo lofunikira kwambiri pakusintha zinyalala zakudya kukhala feteleza.

Chida chazakudya chisanafike pochiza ndi gawo loyamba pakuthandizira zinyalala. Zimaphatikizira Dewatering Systemà Feeding Systemà Makina Osankhira Systemà Olimba-Zamadzimadzi olekanitsa Mafuta-Water Separatorà Omwe ali mgalimoto. Kuyenda kwakukulu kungagawidwe motere:

1. Mwanda wa byakudya ufwaninwe kutanwa ku kupwila kwa pa kala mwanda i na mvubu mpata.

2. Kuchotsa zinyalala zongochokera kuzinthu zopanda chakudya, monga zitsulo, matabwa, mapulasitiki, mapepala, nsalu, ndi zina zambiri, potengera kusanja.

3. Zinyalala za chakudya zimasankhidwa ndikudyetsedwa mu cholembera cholimba-chopatula madzi kuti chiphwanye, kutaya madzi m'thupi komanso kuchotsera.

4. Zotsalira zazakudya zouma zouma ndikuzitenthetsa pakatentha kwambiri kuti zichotse chinyezi chowonjezera ndi tizilombo tating'onoting'ono tambiri. Kutha komanso kuuma kwa zinyalala zomwe zimafunikira kuti kompositi ikwaniritse, ndipo zotayidwa zitha kutumizidwa kuzipangizo zonyamula zonyamula kudzera lamba wonyamula.

5. Madzi omwe amachotsedwa pazakudya ndizosakaniza mafuta ndi madzi, olekanitsidwa ndi olekanitsa madzi-mafuta. Mafuta olekanitsidwa amapangidwa mozama kuti apeze mafuta a biodiesel kapena mafakitale.

Chomera chonse chotaya zinyalala chimakhala ndi zabwino zotulutsa, kugwira ntchito mosamala, mtengo wotsika komanso kusintha kwakanthawi kochepa.

♦ Manyowa

Thanki thanki ndi mtundu wa thanki yotsekedwa kwathunthu pogwiritsa ntchito ukadaulo wa kutentha kwa ma aerobic, womwe umalowetsa m'malo mwaukadaulo wazikhalidwe. Kutentha kotsekedwa komanso njira yothira manyowa mwachangu mu thanki imapanga kompositi yabwino kwambiri, yomwe imatha kuwongoleredwa ndendende komanso kukhazikika.

Manyowa opangidwa ndi zotengera amatetezedwa, ndipo kutentha kumakhala chinthu chofunikira kwambiri popanga manyowa. Kuwonongeka kwachangu kwa zinthu zakuthupi zosawonongeka mosavuta kumatheka chifukwa chokhala ndi kutentha kwakukulu kwa zamoyo zazing'ono. Kukwaniritsa kutentha kochepetsetsa kwa tizilombo tating'onoting'ono ndi mbewu za udzu ndikofunikira. Kutsekemera kumayambitsidwa ndi tizilombo tating'onoting'ono tomwe timapezeka m'zakudya, zimawononga zopangira manyowa, kutulutsa michere, kukulitsa kutentha mpaka 60-70 ° C yofunikira kupha tizilombo toyambitsa matenda ndi mbewu za udzu, ndikukumana ndi malamulo okonzera zinyalala. Manyowa okhala ndi zotengera zili ndi nthawi yovunda mwachangu kwambiri, yomwe imatha kutaya zinyalala m'masiku anayi okha. Pambuyo pa masiku 4-7 okha, kompositi imatulutsidwa, yopanda fungo, yoyeretsa, komanso yolemera, ndipo imakhala ndi thanzi labwino.

Chomera chopanda fungo, chopopera chopangidwa ndi kompositi sichimangopulumutsa malo odzaza kuti ateteze chilengedwe, komanso chimabweretsa zabwino zachuma.

news54 (3)

 ♦ Kuwonjezeka

Gfeteleza organic feteleza amatenga gawo lofunikira pama njira operekera feteleza padziko lonse lapansi. Chinsinsi chothandizira zokolola feteleza ndikusankha makina oyenera opanga feteleza. Granulation ndiyo njira yopangira tinthu tating'onoting'ono, imathandizira ukadaulo wazinthu zakuthupi, kuletsa kugwedeza ndikuwonjezera kutuluka, kuthekera kogwiritsira ntchito zochepa, kumathandizira kutsitsa, mayendedwe, ndi zina zonse.Zida zonse zimatha kupangidwa feteleza wokwanira kudzera pamakina athu opangira feteleza. Zipangizo kuchuluka granulation angafikire 100%, ndi okhutira organic akhoza kukhala wapamwamba kwa 100%.

Pakulima kwakukulu, kukula kwa tinthu tofunikira pamsika ndikofunikira. Makina athu amatha kupanga feteleza omwe ali ndi kukula kosiyanasiyana, monga 0.5mm-1.3mm, 1.3mm-3mm, 2mm-5mm.Kuchulukitsa kwa fetereza imapereka njira zothandiza kwambiri zosakanikirana ndi mchere kuti apange fetereza wokhala ndi michere yambiri, kulola kuti zisungidwe zambiri ndikuzisanjikiza, komanso kuti azitha kugwiritsa ntchito mosavuta. Manyowa opangidwa ndi ma granular ndiosavuta kugwiritsa ntchito, alibe fungo losasangalatsa, mbewu za udzu, ndi tizilombo toyambitsa matenda, ndipo kapangidwe kake kamadziwika bwino. Poyerekeza ndi manyowa a nyama, ali ndi nayitrogeni (N) 4.3, 4 phosphorous (P2O5) komanso potaziyamu 8.2. Feteleza wochulukitsa umapangitsa kuti nthaka ikhale yothandiza powonjezera kuchuluka kwa humus, zisonyezo zambiri zokolola m'nthaka zimasinthidwa: thupi, mankhwala, nthaka ndi tizilombo tating'onoting'ono, mpweya, kayendedwe ka kutentha, komanso zokolola.

news54 (2)

♦ Youma ndi ozizira.

Makina oyimira makina & makina ozizira amagwiritsidwa ntchito limodzi nthawi yopanga fetereza wa organic. Madzi a fetereza amachotsedwa, kutentha kwa granules kumachepetsedwa, kukwaniritsa cholinga cha yolera yotseketsa komanso kutaya madzi. Njira ziwirizi zitha kuchepetsa kuchepa kwa michere mu granules ndikulimbitsa mphamvu yama tinthu.

♦ Sieve ndi phukusi.

Kuwunika ndikulekanitsa feteleza osakwanira omwe amalizidwa ndi Makina owunikira ng'oma. Feteleza osayenerera amatumizidwa kukakonzedwanso, pakadali pano feteleza woyenerera adzapakidwa ndiMakinawa ma CD makina.

Pindulani ndi zinyalala za chakudya

Kusandutsa zinyalala zakudya kukhala feteleza kumatha kupanga phindu lazachuma komanso zachilengedwe zomwe zingalimbikitse thanzi la nthaka ndikuthandizira kuchepetsa kukokoloka komanso kukonza madzi. Gasi yokhazikika yomwe ingapangidwenso ndi biofuels imatha kupangidwanso kuchokera kuzinyalala zomwe zidapanganso chakudya, zomwe zingathandize kuchepetsa mpweya wowonjezera kutentha mpweya ndi kudalira mafuta.

Manyowa a organic ndi michere yabwino kwambiri m'nthaka. Ndi gwero labwino la zakudya zamasamba, kuphatikiza nayitrogeni, phosphorous, potaziyamu ndi micronutrients, zomwe ndizofunikira pakukula kwa mbewu. Sizingangochepetsa tizirombo ndi matenda ena, komanso zimachepetsa kufunikira kwa fungicides ndi mankhwala osiyanasiyana.Manyowa apamwamba kwambiri idzagwiritsidwa ntchito m'malo osiyanasiyana, kuphatikiza ulimi, minda yam'deralo komanso malo owonetsera maluwa m'malo aboma, zomwe zibweretsanso phindu lazachuma kwa omwe amapanga.


Nthawi yamakalata: Jun-18-2021